Thursday, May 16, 2013

Guardians of Dawn (1963)

2013 is the 50th anniversary of the famous Turkish movie Guardians of Dawn ("Şafak Bekçileri") [1] directed by late Halit Refiğ who also wrote the scenario. It was shot black and white in location, at the Eskişehir Air Force Base in 1963. The producer of the movie is Göksel Arsoy who originated the idea and played the lead character. The Turkish moviegoers watched the noisy and powerful military jets on the white screen for the first time and the movie proved to be wildly popular when released. In order to  help non-Turkish speaking audience, I created English subtitles of the movie in the SRT format which can be freely downloaded and distributed [2]

Theatrical release poster

T-33A lands while the Turkish title of the movie is displayed. It is a befitting gesture as two T-33A's were the very first jet aircraft of the TuAF in 1951.
(Still frame from the movie @ 00 min 02 sec)

Director: Halit Refiğ.
(Still frame from the movie @ 02 min 11 sec)

Scenario: Halit Refiğ with Sadık Şendil and Bülent Oran
1st Lt Akinci is in the cockpit of his F-100D under the watchful eyes of Master Sergeant Karadayi.
(Still frame from the movie @ 01 min 21 sec)

Producer: Göksel Arsoy
Note that two F-100D's are taking off.
(Still frame from the movie @ 02 min 01 sec)

Among the players listed: 1st Air Force Officers, NCO's and Enlisted Soldiers.
1st Lt Akinci is climbing the ladder to his F-100D's cockpit while Master Sergeant Karadayi is holding his flight helmet
(Still frame from the movie @ 01 min 02 sec)

The movie tells the story of progressive aviators against a reactionary local Agha behind the romance of a young Turkish Air Force [4] jet pilot and the Agha's beautiful daughter. As the movie was shot after the military coup d'état on 27 May 1960 which was supported by some left wing intellectuals including Halit Refiğ [5], the movie presents the Turkish military officers as progressive leaders struggling against the local reactionary leaders. In some sense, even the title of the movie hints its wisdom: the future ("dawn") of Turkey was guarded by her military. Halit Refiğ says "In fact, Guardians of Dawn is a defense of the 1960 coup d'état. It isn't just a movie about the jet pilots. Of course, this is the basic story, but in the background the movie is about the decisive role of the Military on the Turkish society... In 1963 I didn't know the intricacies of the 27 May [coup d'état] and I was fully supporting it." [6] Note that Halit Refiğ changed his position on the 1960 coup d'état and the Turkish Military by the late 1960's partly due to strong influence of Kemal Tahir [7].

The director Halit Refiğ's two movies Abroad Birds ("Gurbet Kuşları", 1964) and Guardians of Dawn ("Şafak Bekçileri", 1963) in the Şan Theater together in 1965 [3].


The director Halit Refiğ is on the foreground during the shooting [8]. At the background 113 "Pirate" Squadron F-100D  54-2228 which was received on 13 May 1959 is visible [9].

The idea behind the movie belongs to Göksel Arsoy who has interested in aviation since his childhood and his father was a civilian engineer at Kayseri Air Force Base. In Turkish "Göksel" means heavenly and according to Halit Refiğ [10] he was so named because his father liked aircraft and befriended a lot of pilots. Plus, the father of Göksel Arsoy's wife was a retired general who was a close friend of the then C-in-C of the Turkish Air Force General Irfan Tansel. Göksel Arsoy asked for permission from the TuAF for a movie and he got the official approval [11]. Halit Refiğ believed that the movie materialized only due to Göksel Arsoy and his connections [12].

The above scene in the movie: F-100D 54-2228 is being towed in the background while pilots who will take part in the air show walk to their aircraft including 1st Lt Akinci (Göksel Arsoy) and 1st Lt Faruk (Ekrem Bora). Note that the 114 "Light" Squadron Commander Major Ilhan Sonüstün [13] is on the foreground.
(Still frame from the movie @ 55 min 24 sec)

Previously, Halit Refiğ worked with Göksel Arsoy in two movies and Göksel Arsoy offered him to direct his new movie project. He accepted with some reservations: "Interesting idea. But I know nothing about aircraft  First I need to know them" [14]. Both of them visited the Eskisehir Air Force Base several months before shooting the move and flew with jets thanks to a special permission [15]. The TuAF helped the movie shooting considerably: a many TuAF officers took part in the movie, for example Major İlhan Sonüstün and 1st Lt Güner Kurtuluş, and one of them, Ahmet Çörekçi, later became the C-in-C of the TuAF [16]. 

1st Lt Güner Kurtuluş asks which school he will guide. 1st Lt Faruk (Ekrem Bora)  jokes that it is a Girls High-school. At that time he was assigned to the 114 "Light" Reconnaissance Squadron. 
(Still frame from the movie @ 25 min 09 sec)

The scenario originally was written by Sadik Şendil and heavily emphasized romance. However, Halit Refiğ got Göksel Arsoy's approval for a "more realistic" scenario [17]. He decided to emphasize the pilot psychology and the pioneer role of the Turkish Military in introducing modernity and technological innovations [18]. He said "Unavoidably, I needed to specify my position on the 27 May [coup d'état]. Considering the ideas I upheld then, I decided to specifically emphasize the modernizing character of the Turkish Armed Forces. Jet aircraft gave me the opportunity." [19]

The C-in-C of the Turkish Air Force General Irfan Tansel fully supported the movie. 1st Air Force commander General Muhsin Batur liked Halit Refiğ and did hist best during the production.

When Göksel Arsoy screened the movie on 30 August 1963 [20] in Izmir outdoor movie theater, the censorship authorities stopped it after 10 minutes because in the movie there were aircraft crashes and Göksel Arsoy kissed his sweetheart while he wore a uniform.  Then, Göksel Arsoy invited Gen. Irfan Tansel and other high-ranking officers along with their wifes to the studio  in which the movie was processed in Istanbul and arranged a special screening. As Gen. Irfan Tansel liked the movie very much the ban on the movie was lifted within two days [21].

When released to the theaters, the movie was liked widely and attracted much attention. It collected a record grossing and encouraged a record number of youngsters to apply for the Air War Academy [22]. 

1st Lt Akinci
(Göksel Arsoy)
1st Lt Göksel Akinci: (Göksel ArsoyA Turkish Air Force jet pilot. He is a very capable and idealist aviator loving his profession very much. He falls in love with Zeynep unknowing that she is the daughter of villain Kudret Agha. His love of Zeynep and aviation clashes as both Zeynep and Kudret Agha pressure him to resign his commission immediately. He urges Zeynep to care for the poor people living on their farm and nearby villages.

(Leyla Sayar)
Zeynep: (Leyla Sayar) Beautiful daughter of Kudret Agha. She completes her education in Istanbul and returns her hometown Eskisehir to marry with "Cowboy" Kerim. The marriage is prearranged between her father and Emrullah Bey. She was indifferent to the plight of poor peasant working in his father's farm leaving such "business" issues to her father until she falls in love with 1st Lt Akinci.

1st Lt Faruk(Ekrem Bora
1st Lt Faruk: (Ekrem Bora) A Turkish Air Force jet pilot. The closest friend of 1st lt Akinci. After his parents divorced, he was raised by his uncle in poverty. He is a humorous and tough aviator who is always ready chase women. His death in a flying accident devastates 1st Lt Akinci. He buzzes Kudret Aga  as much as possible.

Kudret Agha
(Mümtaz Ener)
Kudret Agha: (Mümtaz Ener) The arch villain, an Agha. "Kudret" means "power" in Turkish. He is a very wealthy and ruthless man. He believes that every man fulfills his fate and openly exploits the poor peasants. For him poverty and hardships should be shouldered as fate. He shows no mercy for his workers to keep a very rigid discipline. He opposes better living standards and education for the peasants to keep the status quo. Consequently, he disapproves any change and hates the reformist people like Teacher Ihsan.

Emrullah Bey
Emrullah Bey: A prominent local right wing politician, a Bey. "Emrullah" means "God's order" in Arabic. He collaborates closely with Kudret AghaHe fixes the problems faced by Kudret Aga "democratically", i.e. in the capital Ankara using his political connections. He and Kudret Agha agreed to have their children Zeynep and "Cowboy" Kerim married.

Lt Aydan
(Nilüfer Aydan)
Lt Aydan: (Nilüfer Aydan) A Turkish Air Force female officer. She always advises her male colleagues for their love affairs. She loves 1st Lt Akinci, but somehow she never attracts his attention. She is the daughter of Master Sergeant Karadayi.

Cowboy Kerim
(Oktay Menteş)
"Cowboy" Kerim: (Oktay Mentes) This villain is the unsophisticated son of Emrullah Bey. He is engaged with Zeynep to cement the close relationship between his  father and Kudret Agha. He wastes his time with card playing etc. and leads a group of thugs.

Teacher Ihsan
"Teacher" Ihsan: An idealist teacher. He teaches the illiterate conscripts like Memo. He always tries to "enlighten" people and talks about "national development problems".

"Fram Manager" Hamdi
(Hüseyin Baradan)
"Farm Manager" Hamdi: (Hüseyin Baradan) This villain works in Kudret Agha's farm. He is a very rude and unrefined man. When fired by Kudret Agha, he decides to revenge which proves to be a fatal mistake.

Master Sergeant Karadayi
(Ahmet Tarik Tekce)
Master Sergeant Karadayi: (Ahmet Tarık Tekçe) A Turkish Air Force maintenance NCO. He is very dedicated to aircraft in his care. He loves aviation very much despite having lost his jet pilot son in a flying accident. He is the father of Lt Aydan.

(Sami Hazinses)
Memo: (Sami Hazinses) An illiterate conscript from rural Turkey. He believes in the crude legends about a local Sheikh. He symbolizes the uneducated, naive and congenial ordinary Turkish citizens. He is being taught how to read and write by Teacher Ihsan in a class supervised by the military which is an example how the military tries to open the eyes of uneducated citizens.

The political wisdom of the movie is outside the scope of this article. I enjoy it as an aviation movie shot in 1960s Turkey showing the legendary "Papa" Super Sabre in the TuAF service.

Arguably the best aerial Super Sabre footage in the movie. Ex-USAF F-100D 55-2754 of 113 "Pirate" Sqn and Ex-USAF F-100D 54-2218 of 111 "Panther" Sqn flies together. At that time all the Super Sabre squadrons enjoyed magnificent insignia on their mounts. Note that the shot lasts only a few seconds! They were received on 9 Jan 1958 and 29 May 1959 respectively [23]. F-100D 54-2218 written off on 21 Feb 1972 [24].
(Still frame from the movie @ 2 min 41 sec)

I think the movie is showing the TuAF aircraft less than expected from an aviation movie, for example there is no close shot of jets breaking formation.  Overall, there are very few air-to-air scenes. The aircraft just provides an impressive background for the story. If one compares it with a magnificent aviation movie like The Bridges at Toko-Ri (1954), the Guardians of Dawn fares definitely badly. Apparently Halit Refiğ decided that a few seconds presence of the jets would awe the audience, he focused always the actors and never bothered to film the then expensive and modern Super Sabre's in detail. That being said, it is an excellent first aviation  movie for the Turkish cinema.

1st Lt Faruk during his ill-fated T-33A flight. Note that the clouds stay stationary and obviously the scene shot on the  ground.
(Still frame from the movie @ 87 min 17 sec)

Considering the political climate of the era, 1st Lt Akinci challenges Kudret Aga for his fanatical disregard of the poor peasants. He sincerely urges Zeynep to care for them disregarding his father and so-called traditions. I guess if the movie had shot in the modern times, the only tension would have arose from the aviation enthusiasm of the 1st Lt Akinci as he resists the pressure coming from Zeynep and Kudret Aga to resign from the TuAF. The movie shows a long-forgotten, but honorable emphasize on the social equality and far away from the individualist climate of the modern times.

Zeynep brings 1st Lt Akinci to her nearby home to care his scratches. Note the 113 "Pirate" Sqn badge on Göksel Arsoy's chest. 
(Still frame from the movie @ 43 min 38 sec)

The movie is very verbose and action scenes are rare. Specifically, the final mission of the 1st Akinci was filmed very poorly: we watch an F-100D/F take off scene and a low flying Super Sabre. Then, we learn what did happen from a Major's report to the General. I think it is too theatrical! Between the two scenes, the focus is on Zeynep and Lt Aydan. 

A Major reports the fate of 1st Lt Akinci to the General. Note the 113 "Pirate" Sqn badge on his flying suit. At that time the flight cap was not in use and the officer wore a regular hat.
(Still frame from the movie @ 111 min 45 sec)

I think the dangerous reconnaissance mission assigned to the 1st Lt Akinci is due fact that the movie shot in the 114 "Light" Recce Sqn premises. I assume naturally its officers suggested such a mission for the plot. However, I think the mission ended in utter failure as the aircraft shot down and consequently the films are lost. Plus, the mission is an odd assignment as the reconnaissance isn't a Super Sabre mission in the TuAF service [25], but a specialty of the RF-84F Thunderflashes equipping the 114 Sqn.

The eulogy during 1st Lt Faruk's funeral despite poorly recorded, see 89th minute, and afterwards a very sorrow 1st Lt Akinci's heart-breaking comments on the lost fliers before their photographs to Zeynep, see 91st minute, are both emotional and powerful scenes. In the later scene I guess Göksel Arsoy know many of the deceased by himself.

A very sorrow 1st Lt Akinci tells the stories of the deceased pilots to Zeynep after attending 1st Lt Faruk's funeral.
(Still frame from the movie @ 91 min 47 sec)

Among the characters in the movie, I think Kudret Aga played by late Mümtaz Ener and 1st Lt Faruk played by late Ekrem Bora stands out. Sami Hazinses plays his role Memo wonderfully just like Ahmet Tarik Tekce and Hüseyin Baradan. I think Leyla Sayar plays her role as Zeynep a bit sleepy and tired. I don't know who played "Teacher" Ihsan but I think he looks to be very boring in his narrow suits. Finally, the "Cowboy" Kerim character is not persuasive at all: he looks to be an ordinary local thug, not the son of a prominent local politician.

Arguably no TuAF front line squadron has painted their mounts more enthusiastically then its early 1960s Super Sabre squadrons. They introduced well designed flamboyant squadron insignia. I think even the contemporary TuAF squadron insignia aren't up to the quality of them. It is a pity that the most flamboyant period of the TuAF wasn't recorded in color!

Overall, the Guardians of Dawn is a very nice Turkish movie of the early 1960s and I guess all the Turkish military aviation enthusiasts owe gratitude to both late Halit Refiğ and Göksel Arsoy for it. Thank you! 


Note that all the aircraft types recorded in the movie are phased out of service. The last one of the movie types to retire is the C-47's which retired in 1998.

North American F-100 Super Sabre

F-100D 54-2201 was received on 31 October 1958, here painted in 113 "Pirate" Squadron colors
(Still frame from the movie @ 102 min 48 sec)

In 1958 the TuAF received its first North American F-100D/F Super Sabre jets. Then, the Super Sabre was a record breaking very capable jet aircraft introduced to USAF service in 1954Around 267 aircraft received over the years from multiple sources [26].  Note that the earlier F-100C model was received by the TuAF later than F-100D/F models in 1972 when they are retired from the Air National Guard service after serving in Vietnam [27].

As it a complex and demanding aircraft, the TuAF assigned its best aviators to its F-100's squadrons [28]. Both the 111 and 113 Squadrons were tasked with nuclear strike by NATO armed with the USAF controlled nuclear bombs between 1963-1974 [29]. The Super Sabre was much liked by its Turkish service men: it was nicknamed "baba" (Papa) being a very tough aircraft [30]. The proud F-100 Squadrons painted over their aircraft flamboyant squadron insignia which has never seen again over the TuAF aircraft [31].

On 1 June 1962, during the TuAF's 51th anniversary day celebrations, Ex-USAF F-100D 54-2743 crashed directly over the audience resulting in 5 fatalities including the pilot and 41 injuries [32]. Due to this disaster, public aerobatic flights was forbidden for decades by the TuAFThe NATO competition Best Hit 1971 was hosted by TuAF in the Eskişehir Air Base and won by its 111 Sqn F-100D's [33]. The F-100's were much used in action in 1964 and 1974 over Cyprus: on 8 August 1964 Capt Cengiz Topel of 112 Squadron was shot down by the Cypriot Greeks while flying Ex-USAF F-100D 55-2766 and although ejected safely, he was captured and killed [34]. On 22 July 1974 the Super Sabres attacked along with F-104G's and sunk Turkish Navy's TCG Kocatepe destroyer in a friendly-fire incident. On 14 Sep 1983 Ex-USAF F-100F 56-903  which was received on 8 Feb 1972 accidentally violated the Iraqi border and was shot down by an Iraqi Mirage F-1EQ [35]. When the beloved F-100's was phased out of service in 1988 Turkish Air Force was the last operator. 

In the movie, it is the principal jet flown by 1st Lt Akinci: he crash lands an F-100D at the beginning, see 4th min, and survives an F-100D ejection near the end, see 111th min.

The Super Sabre was replaced with F-4E Phantom.

F-100D 55-2766 of Capt Cengiz Topel, 112 "Devil" Squadron
(1/32 model by Özkan Türker)

Ex-USAF F-100D 54-2173 was received on 12 November 1958. 113 "Pirate" Sqn was transferred to Erhaç Air Force Base and renumbered as 171 Sqn in 1967The squadron insignia was designed by 1st Lt Nural Varal [36]. Note that the yellow boomerang on the tail doesn't conform to the period photos [37] and the 113 Sqn Super Sabres shot in the movie. Today, this squadron flies the with modernized F-4E 2020's.

Ex-USAF F-100D 55-2754 was received on 09 January 1958111 "Panther" Sqn is the first F-100 squadron of the TuAF. Apparently, this aircraft flew with the 113 "Pirate" Sqn, see the 2nd min in the movie. Today, this squadron flies with the modernized F-4E 2020's.(

Ex-USAF F-100F 56-3946 of 111 "Panther" Squadron, June 1971, Eskisehir. Note that by this time flamboyant squadron insignia removed and USAF SEA style camouflage applied. Currently, this aircraft is preserved in Eskisehir [38].

The same F-100F 56-3946 which was assigned to 112 "Devil" Squadron was photographed during a squadron exchange on 11 September 1973 in Norvenich, Germany. Note that the aircraft sports the current TuAF insignia. The extreme heat around the afterburner burned the aft fuselage paint which was very common [39].

F-100D 56-3399 of 111 "Pirate" Squadron sporting the old "square" TuAF insignia in the USAF SEA camouflage. This aircraft crashed on 24 September 1974 due to engine failure. Note the absence of squadron insignia.
(Photo by Firuz Altıngöz)

Lockheed T-33 Shooting Star

Ex-USAF T-33A 53-5791 was received in July 1955 and withdrawn from use on 11 March 1996This aircraft has survived its ordeal and currently preserved in Diyarbakir [47].
(Still frame from the movie @ 26 min 13 sec)

T-33A is the aircraft opening the movie. Around 193 aircraft received over the years from multiple sources [48]. They were used between 1951-1994 for reconnaissanceliaison and training. 1st Lt Güner Kurtuluş flown Göksel Arsoy in a T-33A on 26 March 1963 [49]. The aircraft was Ex-USAF 53-5743 which was received on 21 June 1955 [50]. In the movie, 1st Lt Faruk dies in a T-33A accident after buzzing Kudret Agha in a daring low-level flying, see 87th min.

1st Lt Faruk buzzes Kudret Aga with a T-33A.
(Still frame from the movie @ 87 min 06 sec)

This ex-USAF Lockheed T-33A 53-5744 was received on 21 June 1955 [51] and is now displayed in the Turkish Air Force Museum in Istanbul 
(Photo by Peter de Jong on 30 July 2006,

Republic RF-84F Thunderstreak

Ex USAF RF-84F 52-8760 with Zeynep and Lt Aydan which was received on 10 July 1957 [43]. Note the 114 "Light" Sqn insignia on the nose.
(Still frame from the movie @ 115 min 10 sec)

The movie was shot in 114 Sqn premises which was equipped with Republic RF-84F Thunderstreak reconnaissance jets. In the movie, the crashed jet of 1st Lt Akinci is found by RF-84F's. Around 80 aircraft received over the years from multiple sources [44]They were used between 1959-1980 for reconnaissance and replaced with RF-4E phantom.

This ex-USAF Republic RF-84F 52-7450 was received on 19 September 1956 [45]Note the 114 "Light" Sqn insignia on the nose.
(Official TuAF photo)

This ex-USAF Republic RF-84F 51-1901 was received on 25 February 1958 [46] and is now displayed in the Turkish Air Force Museum in Istanbul
(Photo by Peter de Jong on 30 July 2006,

North American F-86E(M) Sabre (Canadair CL-13 Mk.2)

Ex Canadian F-86E(M) 19247 was received on 16 July 1955 [40].
(Still frame from the movie @ 56 min 06 sec)

The Sabre is a much loved aircraft in the Turkish Air Force service [41]. It was used between 1954-1968 and replaced by Northrop F-5A/B. However, in the movie it was shown briefly.

This ex-Canadian Canadair CL-13 Mk.2 19207 was received on 16 July 1955 [42] and now displayed in the Turkish Air Force Museum in Istanbul.(Photo by Peter de Jong on 30 July 2006,

Douglas C-47 Dakota

A C-47 takes off with 1st Lt Akinci and 1st Lt Lt Faruk.
(Still frame from the movie @ 09 min 35 sec)

A true legend, the DC-3 airliner first flown in 1935. Its military version C-47 first flown in 1941 and its turboprop conversions are still in military service [52]. Around 110 C-47A/B and DC-3 were received over the years from multiple sources [53]They were used between 1948-1998 for transportation. In the movie, Lt Akinci and Lt Faruk go to Istanbul with a C-47, see 9th min and jumps from a C-47 for training the conscripts and by chance meets with Zeynepsee 40th min. It was replaced with CN-235.

A TuAF C-47 drops parachutist. Note the worn out air force insignia on the aft body.
(Official TuAF photo)

Beechcraft AT-11 Kansan

An AT-11 piloted by 1st Lt Faruk drops the squadron's gift.
(Still frame from the movie @ 74 min 12 sec)

This light weight, twin engine aircraft were used for liaison and training. Around 128 ex-USAF aircraft were received between 1948-1983 [54]. In the movie, an AT-11 piloted by 1st Lt Faruk drops the squadron's gift to 1st Lt Akinci after his engagement, see 74th min.

A TuAF AT-11 Kansan.
(28, Photo by Firuz Altıngöz, July 1975)

Sikorsy UH-19B/D Chickasaw

UH-19D 56-4271 [55] takes off to rescue 1st Lt Akinci.
(Still frame from the movie @ 111 min 36 sec)

The Chickasaw was the first helicopter entering the TuAF service. Between 1958 and 1980 around 18 ex-USAF/US Army examples were used [56]. In the movie, it is used to bring the 1st Lt Akinci home, see 111th min.

(52-7543, Photo by Firuz Altıngöz, August 1976)

Turkish Air Force Insignia


The TuAF used "square" insignia until 1972. It was a red square outlined in white. Then, it was replaced with "red-white-red roundel" which is currently in use. The change is due to fact that high aircraft speeds it is possible to confuse the red square with the Soviet Air Force's red star marking. The national flag is painted on the fin [57] which is reduced in size since the 1970s. Consequently, in the movie all the TuAF aircraft is seen with red squares outlined in white with the Turkish flags on their tails.

Ex-USAF F-102A 55-3413 landing at Mürted Air Force Base circa 1972. It  was received on 29 August 1968 and crash landed  to a road on 22 July 1974 after intercepting Greek F-5A's due to fuel starvation. The TuAF used T/F-102A's between 1968 and 1979 [58]. 
(Photo by Emin Findikli)

171 "Pirate" Squadron's modernized F-4E 2020 Terminator takes off in Lechfeld, Germany. Note the artwork on the tail which apparently based on Ottoman naval soldiers called Levent.
(Photo by Daniel Obers on 24 June 2010,

The director Halit Refiğ married with Nilufer Aydan on 24 February 1962 [59] [60]. The marriage lasted for two years. So, while the movie shot they were a married couple.

The director Halit Refiğ's Abroad Birds ("Gurbet Kuşlari", 1964) movie is the first movie of Cüneyt Arkin who was serving in the Eskisehir Air Force Base as a doctor doing his national service while the movie was shot. He attracted much attention from the movie crew, including Halit Refiğ and Leyla Sayar, but he didn't took part in the movie. After completing his national service, he started his movie career by asking for a role from Halit Refiğ [61].

Late Necdet Tosun plays his characteristic cook role in the movie, see 33rd min

The current Turkish Air Force insignia, i.e. red-white-red roundel, is exactly the same as Peruvian Air Force insignia.

Apparently, the Turkish Air Force had some beard-wearing officers and NCO's in the early 1960s. Today, it is forbidden for the members of the Turkish Armed Force to wear beard.

In the movie, the airmen address each other with their ranks. Today, junior airmen address the senior ones with "Sir". In fact, the exact translation is "my commander". Perhaps the change is due to influence of the Turkish Army.

When the movie was shot, Eskisehir Air Force Base was part of 1st Air Force [62]. It later renamed 1st tactical Air Force à la USAF's Tactical Air Command. However, the USAF dissolved the Tactical Air Command and both of the operational commands of the TuAF have  the word "tactical" dropped in their names.


[1] See the movie at IMDB and Turkish Wikipedia.
[3] Ibrahim Turk, p149.
[4] For the modern Order of battle of the Turkish Air Force, see the Scramble article.
[5] Ibrahim Turk, p127. For  a late 1960's example see Doğan Avcioğlu's The National Democratic Revolution thesis.
[6] Ibrahim Turk, p127.
[7] Ibrahim Turk, p127.
[8] Ibrahim Turk, p143.
[11] Ibrahim Turk, p144.
[12] Ibrahim Turk, p144.
[14] Ibrahim Turk, p145.
[15] Ibrahim Turk, p145.
[16] Ibrahim Turk, p145.
[17] Ibrahim Turk, p146.
[18] Ibrahim Turk, p146.
[19] Ibrahim Turk, p147.
[20] Note that 30 August is the Victory Day in Turkey and the Turkish Armed Forces holds a pageant in the capital city Ankara and large ceremonies in all the major cities.
[21] Ibrahim Turk, p143.
[25] RF-100A was used by USAF and ROCAF only. F-100 Super Sabre in Action, Larru Davis and David Menard, Squadron/Signal Publications, 2003, p11.
[26] North American F-100 Super Sabre, Peter E. Davies and David W. Menard, Crowood, 2003, p148.
[27] Levent Başara, 2011, p50.
[28] Levent Başara, 2011, p10.
[29] Levent Başara, 2011, p5.
[30] Levent Başara, 2011, p10.
[31] Levent Başara, 2011, p11.
Levent Başara, 2011, p27.
[33] Levent Başara, 2011, p20.
[34] Kıbrıs Şehidi Hv. Plt. Yzb. Cengiz Topel ve 1964 Kıbrıs Hava Harekatı, Hv Svn. Bnb Emin Kurt, Ankara, 2009, p113.
Levent Başara, 2011, 49.
[36] Levent Başara, 2011, p11.
[37] Levent Başara, 2011, p16.
[38] Levent Başara, 2011, p41.
[39] F-100 Super Sabre in Action, Larru Davis and David Menard, Saudaron/Signal Publications, 2003, p30, p32.

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